In 1854 CE, when the Catholic Church reaffirmed the dogma of immaculate conception, Pope Piux IX even declared the Virgin Mary the patron saint of linen maids, in perhaps the first official fashion statement of the Vatican. However, because the plant never matures, it also never produces any seeds to use for subsequent crops.
The Jewish Primer, by Shmuel Himelstein. He settled in the town of Lisburn near Belfast, which is itself perhaps the most famous linen producing center throughout history; during the Victorian era the majority of the world's linen was produced in the city which gained it the name Linenopolis. Scutching removes the woody portion of the stalks by crushing them between two metal rollers, so that the parts of the stalk can be separated. In China, the English Cotton system unit, NeC, is common. Douglas Harper, Historian. By that time, household items made of handwoven linen had become expensive status symbols of the elite. A few centuries later, he claims “Cleopatra had a purple sail when she came with Mark Antony to Actium”# and she sailed with the same purple sail as she fled. in Proverbs 31. Just think how many more nuts and berries (or slabs of meat) you could carry if only you had a bag to keep them in instead of just your fists. The history of textiles production spans cultures and millenia. There is a long history of the production of linen in Ireland. Linen is used for variety of uses: from bed and bath fabrics, home and commercial furnishing items, apparel items to industrial products. “Chief Royal Bleacher” was an actual job title, though an unenviable one. written evidence of a linen comes from the Linear B tablets of Pylos, Greece, where linen hast its own ideogram and is also written as "li-no" in Greek. As previously mentioned, linen has a bad name for …
Textiles in a linen weave texture, even when made of cotton, hemp, or other non-flax fibers, are also loosely referred to as "linen.". In the United States cotton is popularly used instead, as linen is many times more expensive there, restricting its use to professional painters. Linen is a bast fiber. Intentional cultivation of the wild flax plant likely began sometime between 5,000-4,000 BCE in the regions of North Africa and the Fertile Crescent, and from the beginning, linen was holy.  Conversely, some brands such as 100% Capri specially treat the linen to look like denim.. However, the very finest linen has very consistent diameter threads, with no slubs at all. Linen can degrade in a few weeks when buried in soil. Linen was produced en masse only in Spain and the rest of the Lower Countries of Europe until the 12th century, when France and Italy began using linen for tablecloths. Tomb paintings and models from across the region depict the repetitive process of washing the wet linen cloth, rubbing it with detergent, pounding it on a smooth stone with wooden clubs, rubbing the surface with balls of leather, rinsing, repeating, again and again; then finally laying it out to bleach dry in the hot sun.  Evidence suggests that flax may have been grown and sold in Southern England in the 12th and 13th centuries. The earliest known household linens were made from thin yarn spun from flax fibres to make linen cloth. In addition flax thread is not elastic, and therefore it is difficult to weave without breaking threads. Because production was so labor-intensive, only members of the elite like priests and royal figures could afford clothing and other articles made of linen. The significant cost of linen derives not only from the difficulty of working with the thread, but also because the flax plant itself requires a great deal of attention. Radiocarbon dati  The Sumerian poem of the courtship of Inanna mentions flax and linen..
Approximately 70% of linen production in the 1990s was for apparel textiles, whereas in the 1970s only about 5% was used for fashion fabrics.
The Phoenicians, who had their merchant fleet, brought flax growing and the making of linen into Ireland. Seeds are then removed from the plant and fibers are loosened from the stalk. Then the shaped dough is placed on the couche. History of Irish Linen. Linen is woven from the spun fibers of the flax plant. People in various parts of the world began weaving linen at least several thousand years ago.  United States currency paper is made from 25% linen and 75% cotton.. This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, most notably line, from the use of a linen (flax) thread to determine a straight line. It was also worn as clothing on a daily basis; white linen was worn because of the extreme heat. They weren’t the first to grow flax in the colonies--the Virginia Company had encouraged (unsuccessfully) the settlers at Jamestown to grow flax, and as early as 1626 the settlers of New Netherland were cultivating flax and shipping it back to Holland. Subscribe to receive updates, access to exclusive deals, and more. The cross section of the fiber is made up of irregular polygonal shapes which contribute to the coarse texture of the fabric. It is smooth, making the finished fabric lint-free, and gets softer the more it is washed.
for books and for a type of body armour.
Fast forward a few thousand years of evolution and innovation and we find, at an ancient site in eastern Turkey, a piece of 9,000 year-old, simply-woven linen cloth clinging to a bone tool—presumably once wrapped around the handle for a better grip. To date, they are the oldest evidence of manmade textiles ever discovered. , The discovery of dyed flax fibers in a cave in Southeastern Europe (present-day Georgia) dated to 36,000 years ago suggests that ancient people used wild flax fibers to create linen-like fabrics from an early date. Flax fibers can usually be identified by their “nodes” which add to the flexibility and texture of the fabric. Flax grows wild in the region extending from Northern Africa to India and north to the Caucasus Mountains in Western Europe. preserved inside pollen chambers for 34,000 years.  Although the linen industry was already established in Ulster, Louis Crommelin found scope for improvement in weaving, and his efforts were so successful that he was appointed by the Government to develop the industry over a much wider range than the small confines of Lisburn and its surroundings. , By the Middle Ages, there was a thriving trade in German flax and linen. In keeping with our flamboyant prehistoric ancestors, linen boasts a way more colorful history than the whitest whites of the Nile Valley: When the Romans fell, Egypt was conquered and ruled by a succession of Islamic dynasties in the 7th century CE.
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It can range from stiff and rough to soft and smooth. Linen wrinkles very easily, and thus some more formal garments require ironing often, in order to maintain perfect smoothness. Obviously the Egyptians agreed to the point that their holy men wore clothing made of no other fabric. Cuneiform sources tell of thrones and statues of deities draped in bolts of fine linen inside temples. , People in various parts of the world began weaving linen at least several thousand years ago. In olden days, in almost every country, each family grew flax and wove the linen for its own use; but the earliest records of an established linen industry are 4,000 years old, and come to us from Egypt. Flax fibres have been found in cloth fragments in Europe that date to the Neolithic prehistoric age.
 When the tomb of the Pharaoh Ramses II, who died in 1213 BC, was discovered in 1881, the linen wrappings were in a state of perfect preservation after more than 3000 years. Swiss lake dwellings that date from 8000 BC. But the oldest textile of them all—and the only one to inspire papal edicts and elaborate Roman courtroom antics—is linen. The fibers are removed and the other parts such as linseed, shive, and tow are set aside for other uses. , In 2018, according to the United Nations' repository of official international trade statistics, China was the top exporter of woven linen fabrics by trade value, with a reported $732.3 million in exports; Italy ($173.0 million), Belgium ($68.9 million) and the United Kingdom ($51.7 million) were also major exporters.
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